Eye Care

Top 47 Eye Diseases and Disorders

There are many eye diseases and disorders which can occur due to different causes. It is important that one should know about the signs and symptoms of an eye disease or disorder. This helps the patient to get the treatment for the disease condition at an early stage. In this article, we list out the top 47 eye disease and disorders.

  1. Acanthamoeba Keratitis:

    It is a rare disease in which an amoebae invades the cornea of the eye.

  2. Age-Related Macular Degeneration:

    It is a disease that usually affects older people. It results in a loss of central vision of the macula (visual field) due to the damage to the retina.

  3. Amblyopia:

    It is also known as ‘lazy eye’, and is a disorder of vision development in young children and infants which can cause indistinct or poor vision leading to permanent vision loss.

  4. Anophthalmia:

    It is the congenital absence of either one or both the eyes.

  5. Astigmatism:

    It is a refractive error and is characterized by the abnormalities of the eye curvature. It is a mild condition and can be easily treated.

  6. Behcet’s Disease of the Eye:

    It is an autoimmune disease which results from the damage of blood vessels (particularly veins) throughout the body.

  7. Bell’s Palsy:

    It is a condition which causes a sudden one side paralysis of the face. Individuals may experience a severe dry eye because of the inability to blink.

  8. Bietti’s Crystalline Dystrophy:

    It is a rare autosomal recessive eye disease which leads to visual field constriction and night blindness.

  9. Blepharitis:

    It is an ocular condition which is characterized by a chronic inflammation of the eyelid which leads to chronic eye irritation, foreign body sensation, tearing and crusty debris.

  10. Blepharospasm or Eye Twitching:

    It is any abnormal twitch, blink or contraction of the eyelids.

  11. Cataract:

    It causes a cloudy vision in aging individuals which affects vision.

  12. Central Serious Retinopathy:

    It is disorder in which the fluid collects under the macular area (central retina) and disrupts the central vision. This causes blurred vision and patient might develop floaters.

  13. Chalazion:

    It is a swollen bump or a cyst in the eyelid which is caused by the blocked melbomian gland inflammation. It usually occurs on the upper eyelid.

  14. Color blindness:

    It is an individuals’ decreased ability to see the differences between the colors which others can distinguish. It is due to the brain, nerve or eye damage or due to exposure to some chemicals.

  15. Coloboma:

    It is a hole in either one of the eye structures such as optic disc, choroid, retina or iris.

  16. Computer Vision Syndrome:

    These are a group of problems which are mostly related to eyes and vision that are associated with the use of computer. Symptoms include dry eyes, eyestrain, blurred vision, pink or red eyes, light sensitivity, burning and headaches.

  17. Corneal Disease ulcer:

    It is the inflammation of the cornea which involves the loss of the outer layer of the cornea.

  18. Corneal Dystrophy:

    It is a condition where there is a loss of normal clarity in one or more parts of the cornea due to the buildup of cloudy material.

  19. Diabetic Eye Disease or Diabetic Retinopathy:

    Patients with Diabetes Milletus develop diabetic eye diseases. Diabetic retinopathy is a diabetes complication and the leading cause of blindness, cataract and glaucoma in adults. It is a result when diabetes damages the blood vessels in the retina and the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye.

  20. Dry Eye or Dry Eye Syndrome:

    It is an eye disease that is caused by an increased tear film evaporation or decreased tear production.

  21. Eye Occlusions or Eye Strokes:

    A sudden but a painless vision loss can be a result of a blockage or clot interrupting the flow of blood to the vital eye structures.

  22. Floaters:

    These are little specks or ‘cobwebs’ which float in front of the vision.

  23. Glaucoma:

    It is a disease which causes damage to the optic nerves resulting in blindness and vision loss.

  24. Hyperopia (farsightedness):

    It is a result of the refractive errors which occur when focusing and bending the light. It is due to a defect of vision which is caused by an eye imperfection.

  25. Low Vision:

    It can result due to the acquired factors or congenital diseases that people develop reduced vision even while using the best possible contact lens or spectacle correction available.

  26. Macular Hole:

    It is a small hole or hole in the macula, located in the middle of the retina (eye’s light-sensitive tissue). Suddenly distorted vision or blurry vision, especially in diabetics and seniors.

  27. Macular Pucker:

    It is an eye disease which causes scar tissue in response to the changes in vitreous humour or diabetes. It can cause distorted or blurred central vision.

  28. Microphthalmia:

    It is a disorder of the development of the eye which literally means small eye.

  29. Myopia (nearsightedness):

    It is a refractive error of the eye in which the cornea is deformed that causes improper bending of the light. Thus, images formed on the retina are not proper and the vision is not clear.

  30. Nystagmus:

    This causes uncontrollable or involuntary eye movements.

  31. Ocular Histoplasmosis:

    It is disease caused by the fungus which damages the eye retina causing loss of vision.

  32. Ocular Migraine:

    This causes a sensation of looking through the shattered glass. It also causes pain (often surrounding the eye) which is accompanied by vomiting, double vision and nausea.

  33. Optic Neuritis:

    It is the inflammation of optic nerve in patients which can cause blind spots and blurry vision.

  34. Photophobia:

    It is a condition in which the patient develops excessive sensitivity to light and allergy to well-lit places and to sunlight.

  35. Pinguecula:

    They are outgrowths on the eye. It is a common type of conjunctival eye degeneration.

  36. Presbyopia:

    It is a health condition in which the eyes exhibit a progressively diminishing ability to focus on the near objects with age. Patients develop blurry vision and often have tired eyes.

  37. Pterygium:

    It a benign growth of the conjunctiva, which grows from the nasal side of the sclera.

  38. Ptosis:

    Patients with this condition develop drooping eyelids.

  39. Retinal Detachment:

    It is an eye disorder in which the retina from its underlying supportive tissue layer peels away. Early detachment can be localized but without any treatment the entire retina might detach causing vision loss and blindness.

  40. Retinoblastoma:

    It is a cancer which develops rapidly. It develops in the cells of light detecting tissue (retina) of the eye. It is a very treatable cancer.

  41. Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP):

    It is a potential blinding eye disorder which primarily affects prematurely born babies. It is caused by the disorganized growth of retinal blood vessels that may lead to scarring and detachment of the retina. It can be mild but in severe cases it leads to blindness.

  42. Strabismus:

    It is a disorder characterized by misalignment of the eyes. In this condition, patients have crossed eyes, eyes pointing downward, upward or outward.

  43. Stye:

    It is unpleasant little bump on the eyelids.

  44. Subconjunctival Hemorrhage:

    It causes a sudden redness in the white of the eyes.

  45. Usher Syndrome:

    It is an inherited disease which is characterized by a gradual vision loss and deafness. It causes night-blindness and side (peripheral) vision loss through the progressive retinal degeneration.

  46. Uveitis:

    It is a painful inflammation of the uvea which causes light sensitivity, blurred vision and floaters.

  47. Vitreous Detachment:

    It is an eye condition in which the vitreous humour separates form the retina.

The above discussed are the top 47 eye diseases and disorders which are listed in A-Z format.

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